Global Independent Analytics
Andres Barrera Gonzales
Andres Barrera Gonzales

Location: Spain

Specialization: Political Science, Social Anthropology

The Rise and Transformations of American Militarism and Imperialism After World War Two

Part II: The USA and the Idea of a United Europe

In post-war Europe, what we are left with is a gloomy panorama of a sharply divided continent, countries occupied by foreign powers and forcefully distributed in ‘spheres of influence’. A liberal Capitalist West comes under American tutelage, whereas the Communist East stays under the grip of the Soviet Union. With the noble idea to overcome the post-war depression, the disheartening devastation and division, and to make sure a war of such dimensions never again would happen, the project of a united Europe is put forward, timidly at first. Thus the Council of Europe is established in 1949, Robert Schuman’s Declaration proposes the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (May 9 1950), later on the six countries that signed the ECSC treaty in 1951 move forward by signing the Treaty of Rome in 1957, which gave way to the establishment of the European Economic Community (EEC), the European Community (EC) by the Maastricht Treaty of 1992-93, and the culmination of the present European Union by the Lisbon Treaty of 2007-2009.

When and how did the appealing project of a united Europe start go awry and deviate from the noble ideals of the founding fathers? That is indeed a complex matter for historians to sort out in detail. What I am suggesting is that one fundamental source of the skewing was the gradual interference of the United States, when they started to realize that the progress of a united Europe would inevitable pose a threat to its own global hegemony and dominance, and become a challenge to its strategic interests: commercial, political and otherwise. This bold interference, at some point resulting in a true take-over of the EU by the USA, is done by different means and via diverse conduits, NATO being the most important and obvious one.

An illustration of the nature of these developments would be in the principles driving the politics of EC-EU enlargement, formally stated or implicit; particularly in what regards its expansion towards the East after the fall of the Wall. There is a pattern that clearly emerges: admission of a country to the EU club implies becoming a member of NATO as well, often it is a stringent precondition, as for example in the case of Spain. After the failed coup d’état of February 23 1981, the priority of the new government was to bring Spain fully into Europe, and under the protective umbrella of the USA-West, so that the dangers of internal political involution would be prevented. The way to achieve this was to start by joining NATO, an objective effectively attained in the short time that this government remained in office. The Socialist Party that had vocally objected and opposed Spain entering NATO overwhelmingly won the 1982 general election, with a clear if implicit mandate to block and overturn the decision of the previous government. However, once in power, the government headed by Felipe González gradually changed their mind: from “OTAN de entrada NO”, to a more pragmatic well perhaps if Spain wants to become a full member of the democratic prosperous Western world... Now, the confirmation of Spain remaining in NATO paved the way for its admission to the European Community in 1986, overcoming the objections of important standing members of the club, with help (and some arm twisting) from the powerful big brother the other side of the Atlantic.

President González was thus successful in superseding the strong internal opposition in his Party, and also in persuading-misleading the electorate during the 1996 referendum campaign whether to stay in NATO... under certain conditions. But the provisos to membership in the Alliance that the socialist government attached to the proposal put forward to the electorate, were later blatantly ignored and overhauled by the government of the Partido Popular when they came to office in 1996, thus consummating a monumental fraud to the Spanish people. A fraud later on to be further extended and completed when Mr Zapatero’s new Socialist government authorized in 2011 (with the agreement of the Partido Popular, then in the opposition) a substantial increase in the number of American troops to be stationed in Spain, for the alleged purpose of the setting up and proper management of an “anti-missile shield” in Spanish territory iii. This unproblematic bipartisan ‘consensus’ was again upheld a few years later in 2013 by Rajoy’s government in power, to allow for further increases in the number of USA troops stationed in Spain iv. This time arguably to provide logistic support for American ‘humanitarian’ missions abroad such as the fight of ebola in Africa, by military means.

The bi-partisan initiatives referred to above, secretively carried out by stealth, keeping the Spanish people ignorant of the implications of such crucial decisions, are about to be culminated with the likely express adoption of a new law (before the 2015 elections take place, because of fears that the new Parliament may not be so compliant as regards USA’s imperative demands) that would allow still more American troops to be stationed in the naval base of Rota and the airfield of Morón de la Frontera, so that the United States may generously staff and operate the headquarters of its Africa Military Command (AFRICOM) from Spainv. And this is the story of a once proud and fiercely independent country Spain becoming a fully fledged military colony of the USA-NATO.

Developments in the Ukraine over the last year or two prove beyond any reasonable doubt what has been argued above; that is, the close convergence of the USA’s agendas as regards the EU and NATO, which for them are just two sides of the same coinvi. These are fundamental facts which effectively amount to the abduction of the modern idea of Europe by the Zeus of the present time. Incidentally, it also accounts for the fact that to this day the European Union lacks any semblance of a common independent policy on defence and foreign matters. Because European defence and foreign policies are defined and determined not by the EU institutions or popular will, but by the NATO, which is in turn under the tight control of the United States. The evidence in this regard is overwhelming, facts and figures are easily available to any person concerned and interested in investigating the subject. But do not look for rigorous information on these issues in the mainstream media, for the media are mostly under the control of powerful Euro-Atlantida lobbies located in Brussels or Washington DC, in the hands of the new Citizens Kane who represent Big Capital, therefore working in the service of the Empire. Furthermore, watch what is going on with the secretive negotiations around the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), carried out behind the scenes, the facts snatched from the public, and even from the institutions and representatives of national popular sovereignty. For it is of the outmost importance to realize that if the TTIP is finally passed, it would be the end of whatever is left of Europe’s independence, and of the national sovereignty of its constituent countries. Because the TTIP is from its very foundations designed to serve the interests of corporate America, to benefit the larger multinational corporations and big financial Capital; rather than for the benefit of the people, or to attend to true national or multinational interests. The deplorable subordination of the EU to the USA’s strategic interests, therefore the lack of autonomy in defining their own path in key issues like defence, foreign affairs, or economic policy for that matter, may have very damaging and tragic consequences for the EU in the (not so) long run.

But let us backtrack a little in the enunciation of the present narrative. With the consolidation of the Communist bloc in Central and Eastern Europe after WWII, the establishment of the Warsaw Pact, and the closure of the Berlin-Iron Wall, the conflict East-West, Communism versus Capitalism, becomes somehow stabilized, indeed frozen, in the European scenario. The hot spots in the confrontation sprout elsewhere: the Korean peninsula, Indochina and Southeast Asia at large, the Middle East after the establishment of the State of Israel and the first Arab-Israeli war of 1948. In the Western European arena what we observe is a transformation of the USA’s military presence, in Germany for example:

  1. From an army of occupation of a country defeated in war (with a mission to defend Germany from itself?)
  2. To a military (and otherwise) occupation led by a country which sees itself as the champion of the Free World, a bulwark against Communism.
  3. However, after the fall of the Wall, the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, then of the USSR itself, what does justify the presence of tens of thousands of American troops and dozens of large military installations in a unified Germany?
    • The inability or/and unwillingness of Europe, and of Germany in particular as the American argument goes, to defend itself from external threats, by properly investing in their own defense.
    • After 9-11-2001 the justification of the still massive American military presence in Europe (in fact greatly increased overall with the USA-NATO expansion to the East) changes in line with the ‘logic’ of the global ‘War on Terror’.
    • Finally, following the events in the Ukraine at the beginning of 2014, the legitimizing argument is specified: defend Europe, the democratic-free Western world...against Russian aggression!

POPULAR ARTICLES

Not Found

OPINION

Vladimir Golstein

Vladimir Golstein

The Danderous Acceptance of Donald Trump

James N. Green

James N. Green

Politics in Brazil: Fasten Your Seat Belts!

Barbara H. Peterson

Barbara H. Peterson

Health officials confirm spread of Zika virus through sexual contact in Texas, first in US

Danny Haiphong

Danny Haiphong

WHY IS OTTO(SUPER)MAN ERDOGAN LOSING HIS CHARISMA?

Miray Aslan

Miray Aslan

How relations between Saudi Arabia and Iran reached a breaking point

Navid Nasr

Navid Nasr

How relations between Saudi Arabia and Iran reached a breaking point

Writers

chief editor

Joshua Tartakovsky

Analysis should serve as a method to better understand our world, not to obscure it.

Materials: 42

Specialization: Israel and the Middle East, US politics

Materials: 7

Specialization: Balkans, NATO and EU policies, Strategic communications

Materials: 3

Specialization: Foreign politics, Immigration, Human rights.

Materials: 2

Specialization: Political Science, Social Anthropology

Materials: 3

Specialization: Eastern Europe

Materials: 14

Specialization: Industrial Safety, Corporations

Materials: 12

Specialization: Eastern Europe, Labor movement

Materials: 3

Specialization: American history, way of life, and principles

Danielle Ryan

Ireland

Materials: 10

Specialization: US foreign policy, US-Russia relations and media bias

Materials: 20

Specialization: War, Racism, Capitalist exploitation, Civil rights

Materials: 8

Specialization: Modern Japanese History, Modern Chinese History, Military History, History of Counterinsurgency, History of Disobedience, Dynamics of Atrocities in Wartime

Dovid Katz

Lithuania

Materials: 3

Specialization: Holocaust Revisionism and Geopolitics; East European Far Right & Human Rights; Yiddish Studies & Litvak Culture

Materials: 20

Specialization: History, Catalunya, Spain, Geopolitics, Nationalism in Europe, Islamization, Immigration

Materials: 5

Materials: 3

Specialization: migration, international relations

Materials: 1

Specialization: Syria, US Foreign policy and strategies, BRICS/SCO

Materials: 19

Specialization: Balkans, Yugoslavia

Materials: 10

Specialization: Jihadist Groups, Islamic Terrorism, Global Security

Materials: 4

Specialization: Geopolitics

Materials: 4

Specialization: Media and government relations

Materials: 2

Specialization: Latin America, Brazil

Jay Watts

Canada

Materials: 2

Specialization: History, Marxism-Leninism, Imperialism, Anti-imperialism.

Materials: 2

Specialization: International Relations, Sociology, Geostrategy

Materials: 1

Specialization: civil rights

Lionel Baland

Belgium

Materials: 22

Specialization: Euroscepticism, Patriotic parties of Europe

Maram Susli

Australia

Materials: 3

Specialization: Geopolitics

Materials: 2

Specialization: Civil rights, Racism, US politics

Materials: 1

Specialization: geopolitics, economics

Max J. Schindler

Palestine-Israel

Materials: 9

Specialization: Politics

Miray Aslan

Turkey

Materials: 12

Specialization: Media, Politics

Materials: 5

Specialization: Politics, International relations

Navid Nasr

Croatia

Materials: 13

Specialization: Global security, Politics

Materials: 9

Specialization: Development of European Union, Non-governmental organizations, Politics and economics in Baltic States

Materials: 9

Specialization: Greece, Crisis of the US hegemony; Israel / Occupied Palestine, Oppression of Black people in the US

Materials: 4

Specialization: geopolitics, Russia, USSR

Pedro Marin

Brazil

Materials: 17

Specialization: Latin America, Ukraine, North Korea

Materials: 13

Specialization: Sustainable development, International relations, Comparative European politics, European integration, Eastern European politics and EU-Russia relations

Materials: 8

Specialization: Politics

Materials: 16

Specialization: Counterterrorist Finance

Seyit Aldogan

Greece

Materials: 3

Specialization: ISIS, Middle East, Globalization, Migrant crisis

Materials: 1

Specialization: Head of "Srebrenica Historical Project"

Materials: 3

Specialization: Economy, Social politics

Stevan Gajic

Serbia

Materials: 1

Specialization: Full time researcher at the Institute for European Studies

Materials: 5

Specialization: Geopolitics, Geoeconomics

Materials: 2

Specialization: Civil rights

Tobias Nase

Germany

Materials: 8

Specialization: Syria, US Foreign policy, Ukraine

Valerijus Simulik

Lithuania

Materials: 2

Specialization: Politics and economics in Baltic States, education and science, non - governmental organizations, globalization and EU

Van Gelis

Greece

Materials: 17

Specialization: Middle East

Materials: 1

Specialization: Kosovo, Serbia, Belgrad bombing

Materials: 5

Specialization: international relations, Russia

toTop